Congress is diverse, except for religion

New research shows that about 88 percent call themselves Christians.

Rep. Ilhan Omar stands with her three children as she is sworn in on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives on Jan. 3.


When the new Congress convened, it included several firsts with its youngest elected member, its first two Muslim women and its first two Native American women among them.

Women now make up about a quarter of Congress, while the Senate and House of Representatives together include more Blacks, Latinos and Asian Americans than ever before.

But even as Congress takes steps toward reflecting the gender and racial makeup of the country, it lags behind significantly when it comes to religion, according to an analysis.

Mostly Christian

Using self-reported information about the religious affiliations of the 534 members of Congress, the Pew Research Center found that about 88 percent call themselves Christians. The number is a slight dip from the 115th Congress, in which 91 percent of members were Christians.

The race in North Carolina’s 9th District has not been certified amid allegations of electoral fraud, which is why Pew counted one less person than the typical 535 that makeup Congress.

“While the number of self-identified Christians in Congress has ticked down, Christians as a whole — and especially Protestants and Catholics — are still overrepresented in proportion to their share in the general public,” Pew’s report said. “Indeed, the religious makeup of the new, 116th Congress is very different from that of the United States population.”

U.S. makeup

Overall, the U.S. population is about 70 percent Christian. People who are atheist, agnostic or identify with no religion now make up close to 23 percent of the population, while Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and other religions together constitute about 6 percent of the U.S., according to Pew.

The nonpartisan research group’s report used data from Roll Call, which asked members of Congress which religious group if any, they identified with as part of a larger questionnaire. Pew did not attempt to measure how religious members of Congress are or how religion influences their politics.

Here’s how the religious makeup of Congress breaks down:

More Protestants

Data show that Congress has become slightly less Christian over the years. The new Congress has 14 fewer Christians than the previous one, and 20 fewer than the Congress that was in session in 2015 and 2016.

Still, Christians dominate Congress.

About 55 percent are Protestants, while 30 percent are Catholics and 15 percent align themselves with “unspecified or other” movements of Christianity. The latter group includes those who said they were Christian, evangelical Christian, evangelical Protestant or Protestant but did not indicate a denomination.

By themselves, Protestants make up a majority in the House and Senate.

Among Protestants, Pew counted 72 Baptists and 42 Methodists. Among Presbyterians, Lutherans and Anglicans/Episcopalians, there were 26 members from each group. Ten members said they were Mormons. Pew counted five politicians who are Orthodox Christian.

And while Christians are the majority in the Republican and Democratic memberships of Congress, they overwhelmingly make up the Republican side. Out of 253 Republicans, only two are not Christians. Reps. Lee Zeldin of New York and David Kustoff of Tennessee are Jewish.

Jews, Muslims

The growth of non-Christian members of Congress is nearly completely among Democrats or independents.

Jewish members make up the second-largest religious group at 6 percent. In the 116th Congress, there are 34 Jewish members, an increase of four. The number is far from the highest. That came in 1993, when there were 51 Jews in Congress.

Muslims and Hindus were the next biggest groups of non-Christians, with three members from each.

Democratic Reps. Ilhan Omar of Minnesota and Rashida Tlaib of Michigan are the first Muslim women in Congress. They join Democratic Rep. Andre Carson of Indiana.

The total number of Muslims is an increase of one over the previous Congress, when former Democratic Rep. Keith Ellison served.

Hindus, Buddhists

Among Hindus, each is a returning member. They are Rep. Ro Khanna of California, Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi of Illinois and Rep. Tulsi Gabbard of Hawaii. All three are Democrats.

There are two Buddhists, one less than before. That’s because former Democratic Rep. Colleen Hanabusa of Hawaii did not seek re-election and instead ran unsuccessfully for governor.

The Buddhists currently serving are Rep. Hank Johnson of Georgia and Sen. Mazie Hirono of Hawaii. Both are Democrats.

Two Universalists

Among Unitarian Universalists, there is one more in the new Congress for a total of two.

Although the faith has roots in Christianity and some Unitarian Universalists identify as Christians, Pew does not categorize the tradition under Christianity. Its members in Congress, both Democrats from California, are Reps. Ami Bera and Judy Chu.

In a previous CQ Roll Call survey, Chu did not answer the religion question.

No response

There is only one person in Congress that Pew counted as having no religious affiliation. That is Democratic Sen. Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona.

Sinema previously served three terms in the House. Democratic Rep. Jared Huffman of California said in 2017 that he was a humanist and unsure of whether God exists but Pew did not count him as an religiously unaffiliated member because he did declined to state his religious identity in the CQ Roll Call survey.

In addition to Huffman, 17 other members of Congress did not identify their religion in the questionnaire.



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